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Analysis: How effective are MPAs?

In 1962, at the First World Conference of National Parks in Seattle, U.S., Carleton Ray, a marine biologist at the University of Virginia, pleaded the cause of setting aside “unmolested” areas in the sea.

“Man is using the sea at a great rate, polluting it, developing its borders,” he said in one of the conference sessions. “If we conservationists and biologists do not think of the planet as one — earth and water — then I ask, who will? If we do not press for marine as well as terrestrial sanctuaries and for regulations over our marine activities, then I ask again, who will?”


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